Molecule: trans resveratrol
Known as: molecular calorie restriction mimic
Gene activation: favorably switches hundreds/thousands of genes. Notably activates Sirtuin 1 DNA repair “survival” gene, which is activated by calorie restriction.
Molecular weight: 228 (small molecule, able to enter nucleus of living cells)
Oral absorption: ~70%
Half-life: ~14 minutes (time it takes for 50% to be degraded)
Liver metabolism: delayed if accompanied by quercetin; quercetin permits more passes through the liver before it is metabolized.
Bioavailability: Once metabolized in the liver (attached to sulfur or glucuronate molecules) it is not bioavailable. However liver glucuronidation extends the life of trans resveratrol up to 9 hours in the blood circulation.
Delivery to tissues: At sites of inflammation, infection and malignancy an enzyme called glucuronidase releases resveratrol from glucuronate. This is nature’s drug delivery system. Resveratrol IS bioavailable.
Typical range in wine: trans resveratrol is 1000-fold more concentrated in red wine than in grape juice because of fermentation. Only a few micrograms are found in grapes, but 1 milligram in a glass of aged dark red wine. Mulberries, peanuts, grapes provide a few micrograms. Heat pasteurization destroys resveratrol in grape juice.
Molecular stability: resveratrol subject to change from trans to cis resveratrol by exposure to light (called photoisomerization). The cis resveratrol form of the molecule does not activate the Sirtuin 1 gene. Needs to be protected from light, heat, oxygen during manufacture and subsequently in oral capsules.
Safety: Approved by EPA as non-toxic. Passed the safety-arm of three human clinical trials. Has been shown to be non-toxic in animal test (21,000 mg human equivalent). Reviewed for toxicity by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.
Potential side effects: Resveratrol should not be taken at the same time as other medications. Resveratrol interferes with medicines in a similar fashion to drinking grapefruit juice prior to taking medicines. Resveratrol should not be taken by pregnant moms or growing children. Mega-dosing (>500mg) can have potential side effects.
Human dosage: According to a recent study involving mice, published in Nature Magazine, a very high dose of research-grade resveratrol (sealed in airtight vial) was employed, equivalent to 1575 milligrams in a 160-pound human. The Nature study reported that research-grade resveratrol resulted in the animals living 31% longer and they retained good motor function (balance and coordination) despite eating a high-fat diet. Now a new study published by LifeGen shows a much smaller dose (360mg) needed and mega-doses (>500mg) may produce side effects.
Question: is this the same dosage needed for humans to get the same effect? Answer: A lower dose, about 364 milligrams of resveratrol for a 160-pound human, was used in the same study with similar success. Recognize the animals were fed a 60% fat-calorie diet, whereas most Americans consume a 35% fat-calorie diet. So, as a guesstimate, maybe ~180 mg of resveratrol would work in a similar fashion. On the other end of the dosage spectrum, red wine has produced leaner bodies in France, with the French living 45-65% longer in wine-growing districts, and their cardiac mortality rate is a third of what Americans experience (90 per 100,000 heart disease deaths per 100,000 for the French vs 240 per 100,000 for Americans, with approximately the same cholesterol levels).
Dosage in Longevinex® capsules: Initially when Longevinex® capsules were developed it was unknown how long resveratrol would remain stable inside the capsules. So the label said a MINIMUM of 15 milligrams of red wine extract (resveratrol) and 40 milligrams was actually inside the capsules. Over a 2-year shelf life, Longevinex® capsules have maintained ~96% of the 40 mg of trans resveratrol. Longevinex® capsules are never exposed to oxygen, heat or light during manufacturing. The dosage of trans resveratrol in Longevinex® capsules is 100 milligrams per capsule. In Longevinex Advantage™ it is 100 milligrams in two capsules.
Longevinex encapsulation: airtight capsules.
Pharmaceutical-grade resveratrol: some companies utilize the term pharmaceutical-grade resveratrol. There is no definition of “pharmaceutical grade.”